# The hydraulic calculation

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**hydraulic calculation**to obtain quantitative results. Without knowing how it behaves (hydraulically) a network, at any point, how do you know which diameter of the pipeline to adopt or which and how many emitters you can feed?

**proper project**takes into account all the geometrical parameters, physical, topographical (as well as the boundary conditions where the plant will be built) and uses the most advanced engineering methodologies and mathematical formulas to analyze the quality of irrigation.

IrriPro | Other softwares | Maximum error [%] | Comments | |

Variable slope | Processing 3D model of the ground for a variable slope, point by point, section by section, pipe by pipe | Inserting a constant slope for all parts of the system | 40% for the value of uniformity50% for the minimum pressure | The error varies according to the order they are presented with the change of slope |

Variables speed | Calculated as a variable in every point | Set as a constant value | - | In general, the water speed varies in lateral pipes between 5m/s and 0 m/s |

Costant Head losses | Calculated assuming Variables the flow rates of each part of pipe and the outgoing flow from each emitter (rigorous formulation of the equation of motion and continuity) | Calculated by taking the equivalent discharge transiting the entire length of the pipeline | 30% of the total head losses | The evolution of pressure due to continuous losses, calculated as the equivalent discharge of service along the pipe, has a constant slope and differently by reality. The calculation of uniformity in this case is not reliable |

Local head losses | Considered using a rigorous formulation depending on the size of the emitter | Not considered or imposed as a constant proportion of the pressure | 50% of the total head losses | The local head losses (due to the presence of emitters) include up to 50% of the total head losses |

Integral calculus of the system | Integral calculus of all processed laterals considering their mutual interaction between each element | Calculation on a single chosen lateral | - | The reliability calculation for a single lateral (the result is then extended to the whole system) depends on the choice of the lateral and the size of the system |

Temperature | Modifiable | Not modifiable | 7-10% of the total pressures | Temperature affects the viscosity and density of water |

**In other words, a simple calculation gives no guarantee to the success of a project**.