To use the service you need to:

**Identify the area to be detected by typing the address or coordinates;****Choose from the drop down menu the number of points to detect: the larger is this value, the more accurate the survey will be;****Change the zoom and move the displayed area in order to identify the portion of the surface on which to perform the survey: the maximum detectable size is about 1600 hectares;****Click on "survey" to perform processing.**After the process, you will see a grid above for each vertex the elevation in meters. You can then extract the DEM and satellite maps clicking on the appropriate buttons.

N.B.: **The accuracy of the altimetric data varies from 3 arc-seconds (1 point every 90 meters) to 1/3 arc-second (1 point for every 10 meters), up to 1/9 arc-seconds (1 point every 3 meters) in the U.S. and in many urban areas.** The service, made available from Google Maps and Google Earth, comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) project (http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (http://www.usgs.gov/) and others cartographic service. By performing surveys on some sample areas (according to studies in Italy and Nigeria) it's showed a average error about altimetric data of 2,5 meters.. The mapping with satellite maps is always relative to the Google Maps service.

The research study was conducted in a greenhouse at western region of Abu Dhabi UAE to check the operational reliability, efficiency, dependability and harmony of the existing drip irrigation system through IrriPro, our irrigation design software.

IRRIPRO was used in order to design and plan viable drip irrigation systems. This software is proficient enough in planning network layout, hydraulic designing and above all simulations to obtain results. This software can also provide requisite cost estimation of drip irrigation.

Hydraulic estimation of drip irrigation system was based on a method defined by the ASAE (1999). Three emitters on a lateral were selected at the head, midpoint and tail-end and discharges were measured on them.

IRRIPRO has the diverse quality to calculate and design many other hydraulic parameters. It is a helping tool for water resource engineers in designing, testing, analyzing any other alternative design on precision and economical parameters.

The comparative study revealed that the drip irrigation achieved high CU and DU which imply that the existing drip irrigation system was designed on the basis of proper scaling and dimensions. The CU on average basis for the system was found to be 96.4990% (observed) and 99.9796% (simulated) respectively. Similarly, the DU on average basis for the system was found to be 94.3605% (observed) and 99.8822% (simulated) respectively. EUa of the system using pressure compensated type emitters with the length of laterals 16 meters with an average observed and simulated value was found 99.2192% and 99.99316% respectively.

The comparison of experimental and simulated results confirms that the application uniformity seems to be satisfactory and the existing drip irrigation unit was designed properly. The design of the existing drip irrigation network was checked by the interactive computer software i.e. IRRIPRO which was found acceptable. The uncertainty in results was found less than 10% which indicates its accuracy. IRRIPRO software also predicts that the ideal pressure for existing drip irrigation was 13.353 m c.a (1.29 atm) which gives 3.655 lit / hr flow rate for all emitters. As IRRIPRO is providing the ideal results for the existing drip irrigation system it will be more as compared to the field results. This software could also be used to calculate the annual costs of any system even if it is not designed by IRRIPRO.

IJR (International Journal of Research IF 3,541) published the research paper named "ANALYSIS OF TRICKLE / DRIP IRRIGATION UNIFORMITY BY IRRIPRO SIMULATIONS"

Irriworks software was used (in collaboration with the Agrarian Faculty of the University of Palermo, measure 3.13 of POR Sicily PIT7) for an irrigation system at the farm called "Licata" in the City of Bompensiere (CL). The plant is costitued by 180 pressure compensated drip emitters, is located on a plot of about 0.6 ha, with slopes from 10% to 18%, and is planted with olive trees.

There are some differences between estimated values (simulated with the IrriPro software) and afield measured ones: no more than 9% for pressure and 6% for the discharge. The error is mainly due to constructive aspect of the emitter during factory production.

**Estimated-measured pressure chart**

For the same reason, the uniformity coefficient was equal to 94%, as assessed by IrriPro, compared to 91% measured in the field.

In short, the software IrriPro simulated very well the conditions of operation of the network.

How can you say that a project is well done, not knowing if at any point is dispensed the right amount of water?

The **proper project** takes into account all the geometrical parameters, physical, topographical (as well as the boundary conditions where the plant will be built) and uses the most advanced engineering methodologies and mathematical formulas to analyze the quality of irrigation.

The third-party software adopt simplified methods to calculate the flow and pressure: typically they design according to the criterion of constant speed in the pipe or strive for minimum cost (economic). In this way we obtain approximate results and the technician is unable to answer the questions: does the water reach all parts of the installation? Is the irrigation system working well? Can The plant guarantee me an acceptable quality for irrigation?

Take for example a plant on an area of 0.6 hectares with about 5000 emitters built on a lot with variable slopes (with laterals that have an average gradient of 2.5% ranging from a minimum value of -5% and maximum +10%).

On following table it shows the consequences if it isn't considered any parameters in the calculation:

IrriPro | Other softwares | Maximum error [%] | Comments | |

Variable slope | Processing 3D model of the ground for a variable slope, point by point, section by section, pipe by pipe | Inserting a constant slope for all parts of the system | 40% for the value of uniformity50% for the minimum pressure | The error varies according to the order they are presented with the change of slope |

Variables speed | Calculated as a variable in every point | Set as a constant value | - | In general, the water speed varies in lateral pipes between 5m/s and 0 m/s |

Costant Head losses | Calculated assuming Variables the flow rates of each part of pipe and the outgoing flow from each emitter (rigorous formulation of the equation of motion and continuity) | Calculated by taking the equivalent discharge transiting the entire length of the pipeline | 30% of the total head losses | The evolution of pressure due to continuous losses, calculated as the equivalent discharge of service along the pipe, has a constant slope and differently by reality. The calculation of uniformity in this case is not reliable |

Local head losses | Considered using a rigorous formulation depending on the size of the emitter | Not considered or imposed as a constant proportion of the pressure | 50% of the total head losses | The local head losses (due to the presence of emitters) include up to 50% of the total head losses |

Integral calculus of the system | Integral calculus of all processed laterals considering their mutual interaction between each element | Calculation on a single chosen lateral | - | The reliability calculation for a single lateral (the result is then extended to the whole system) depends on the choice of the lateral and the size of the system |

Temperature | Modifiable | Not modifiable | 7-10% of the total pressures | Temperature affects the viscosity and density of water |

In conclusion, the error committed not considering any or all of the components of the calculation may become significant. **In other words, a simple calculation gives no guarantee to the success of a project**.

The other software are able to calculate the hydraulic characteristics in few points on the network.

IrriPro, however, allows the designer to know the continuous distribution (not discrete) of the values of pressure and discharge, and therefore know where and how far to correct to improve the project. For example, the thematic map of IrriPro, through different colors for different scales of flow rate and pressure, allows the designer to know how serious and extensive the negative condition is and fix all the points where the water supply is in deficit.

**Other software IrriPro**

]]>IrriPro, however, allows the designer to know the continuous distribution (not discrete) of the values of pressure and discharge, and therefore know where and how far to correct to improve the project. For example, the thematic map of IrriPro, through different colors for different scales of flow rate and pressure, allows the designer to know how serious and extensive the negative condition is and fix all the points where the water supply is in deficit.

In this case, how extensive is the area where the designer must adjust the project to improve the conditions? | The overview is complete and, point by point, the designer knows where to intervene |

The longest because it can last from a few days to several months (In figure, a survey obtained after 3 months of work) depending on the size of the land and the required precision.

Once you have made the survey it will contain the planimetric information (such as shape and size of the sector) and altitude (the altitude at each point detected). Knowing the elevations you can calculate the slopes of the pipeline: at present no instrument except IrriPro, manages to consider the slopes for each part of pipe and the elevations of each emitter. The only information used by third-party software is slope value, which is considered constant for the entire length of the pipeline: this produces gross miscalculation and incorrect project. IrriPro, by contrast, allows you to take into account in hydraulic calculation all planimetric and elevation data that describe the terrain: each part of pipe will present the right slope, and each emitter will be placed at the correct altitude. Furthermore, in order to make it easier and fast as possible the acquisition of 3D terrain model, the software offers three different ways to enter data:

**The surveying service of Google Earth/Maps, included in IrriPro software, is also available on-line at this link**.

Further on, are described in more detail, the technology and the method behind the survey through Google Maps.

Thanks also to the revolutionary technology for survey from the Google Maps/Earth on-line service, available within the program, you can perform the topographic survey of the area where you implement the system without moving from your PC: You will get 3D model of the land: this feature is used to perform the topographic plano-altimetric survey of the area where will be designed and built the irrigation system.

Through this console you can make a topographical survey of land simply by identifying the area to be detected . The user can use this feature to: - Surf in 2D or 3D, as in Google Maps by entering coordinates or name of the place.
- Develop the satellite imagery identified by choosing the precision level of survey from 25 to 2500 points collected from a processing time of up to ten minutes.
| |

IrriPro matter the satellite imagery and GIS data (DEM as ASC file) to calculate coordinates and dimensions of each object that will be included in the workspace of the software. The DEM (Digital Elevation Model) product is a raster data model, in the case of 2500 detected points, it consists of a matrix square mesh of 50 rows and 50 columns. The characteristics listed in the plano-altimetric DEM are georeferenced to the UTM-WGS84. | |

Knowing the plano-altimetric trend of the land, slopes and elevations will be allocated to the elements (such as pipelines and regulators) according to their position. Throughout the work area, the elevations (listed next to the mouse cursor) were obtained through a SPLINES-type interpolation procedure of DEM data. Intercepting points of equal altitude with lines you get the various contour lines. |

RELIABILITY OF THE GIS DATA IN GOOGLE MAPS/EARTH

From studies carried out by the company Irriworks, it appears that the quality of data extracted from GIS service Google Maps is comparable to the same level of a technical mapping on a scale of 1:10,000 and then sufficiently reliable for the design of irrigation systems. In addition, you should not underestimate the great difference of time, resources and equipment to be used for the construction of a detailed survey: For the areas under study, this has required a time of 3 months compared to the few minutes used to extract data through the GE service, whereby it is possible in real time and in the areas where you do not have a traditional cartographic support, to obtain a reliable representation of the difference plot.

Following3documentsofdifferent sourceson the precisionandaccuracy of theplanimetricandelevation datareturned from the serviceGoogleEarth / Maps:

- AN ASSESSMENT OF DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS (DEMs) FROM DIFFERENT SPATIAL DATA SOURCES (Nigeria).pdf
- L’accuratezza dei dati di Google Earth (Pavia).pdf
- Affidabilità dati GIS DA Google Earth(Sicilia).pdf

**GOOGLE MAPS GIS DATA AVAIBILITY**

Map data are available all over the world but some areas. Click here to check the coverage table.

]]>In this page it will be dealt with **irrigation design software** and other tools to design irrigation systems. Nowadays engineers involved in the design of irrigation systems make use of tools such as abacuses, graphs, tables provided by manufacturers of materials for irrigation in their catalogs. Are also developed spreadsheets and several companies offer software to design irrigation systems, but these are based on approximate algorithms. Typically, these software are created for small projects of irrigation systems for public parks and gardening, and make use of simplifying assumptions valid only for small plants for irrigation. Therefore, these instruments, and also the **irrigation software** proposed by third parties, are inadequate for professional use and for the design of irrigation systems of large dimensions. In summary, the design of irrigation systems is now based on:

- Empirical methods, slow and laborious, which consist in testing, directly in the field, the material to be adopted in the irrigation system;
- Abacuses/graphs or tables provided by manufacturers of materials for irrigation in their catalogs;
- Tedious mathematical procedures that consider only standard and unrealistic through the use of simple or sophisticated spreadsheets;
**Irrigation design software**, based on approximate algorithms, usually born for small projects of public green and gardening, which are supported by simplifying assumptions valid for small irrigation systems but less suitable for professional use and for the design of large sizes irrigation systems. These software, based on inaccurate calculation criteria, are more dedicated to the CAD drawing of irrigation systems, rather than a professional complete project equipped with a reliable hydraulic calculation.

There are other methods that combine the classical equations of hydraulics, but do not consider the characteristics of hydraulic functioning of the emitter resulting in inaccurate or too expensive in terms of IT resources and difficult to implement in software for irrigation. The following table summarizes the comparison between the different design procedures:

## Rapidity of Design | ## Accuracy of the result | ## High Irrigation Efficiency | ## Quick Data Input | ## Irrigation material database | |

## Empirical methods | |||||

## Abacuseses and graphs | |||||

## SbS Procedure (spreadsheet) | |||||

## ALTRI SOFTWARE | |||||

## IRRIPRO |

The design of an irrigation system can be performed with the use of abacuses, graphs and tables, prepared directly by the firms producing material for irrigation, and which show, for the type of product which is considered (conducted and dispensers), the maximum allowable planimetric development under certain conditions of pressure, flow and slope. For example, for a laterals these catalogs show the maximum allowable development in length when using a certain diameter of the pipe and a certain emitter.

They did not cover the different slopes (which are assumed horizontal or sub-horizontal), nor the interaction with the other parts that compose the irrigation system (which may have 5 as 200 lateralss). Furthermore, the results reported are valid only for a well-determined supply pressure. These assumptions entail negative consequences, both on the uniformity of distribution of the flow rates provided and on the efficiency of the irrigation system itself, produced by a functioning, during operation, of the irrigation system different from that expected in the design stage. Of course, you can take advantage of these sizing tools, only with reference to irrigation equipment manufactured by the same company. It then determines a situation of uncertainty for the professional who, in the design of an irrigation system, in making a comparison of the solutions proposed by different companies can not disentangle among various methods of sizing.

When using spreadsheets, the design of irrigation systems is performed or through simplified methods (and therefore approximate) or through stringent ones that are, in this case, very expensive in terms of human resources, time and applicable only on small to very small scale of irrigation systems. In fact, if one wanted to take account of all the mutual interactions between the various parts of the irrigation system would be necessary to construct the calculation tables too complex to implement and not manageable. These procedures also have never been automated, so the spreadsheet must be set each time you design a new irrigation system. For example, if you wanted to design a small irrigation system, designed to serve an area of one hectare extension where you plan to insert 10,000 emitters, the rigorous calculation with spreadsheet requires the writing of 30,000 equations, which would make this a difficult task even for the most scrupulous designers.

The most advanced software for irrigation on the market today are not very accessible to the general public, constituted by the majority of technicians who deal with the design of irrigation systems. Most of the time these are excessively expensive, with an interface very complicated and difficult to use. They typically have a laborious input handling, and provide impractical results in real installation management of the irrigation system. The majority of irrigation software study the approximate solution: considering only the equations of continuity and motion and not the third equation that characterizes the operation of the emitters. Moreover, these applications calculate only the continuous head losses (due to friction of the fluid against the walls of the pipes and which determine variations of pressure along the various constituent parts of the plant) and do not consider the localized head losses (which strongly affect the pressure variations along the laterals) determined by the presence of numerous emitters that cause continuous enlargements and constrictions of the passage section of the water.

Another component which is neglected is the kinetic energy possessed by the fluid in motion, which entails, especially when the flow rates conveyed in the pipes are high, the simplifications which further increase the level of approximation of the results. Still in the case of these software for irrigation the calculation is made by isolating the branch of pipe that we want to calculate from the rest of the irrigation network (which is not counted in its entirety), and then neglecting inopportunely the mutual interactions between the various parts of the irrigation network. The adoption of a series of simplifying assumptions determine substantive differences between the magnitudes (in terms of pressure and flow) calculated in the design stage and those obtained in the field during the functioning of the plant, resulting in obvious repercussions on the uniformity of the flow delivered and then the qualitative and quantitative yield of agricultural crops. The design software for irrigation systems currently on the market only allow the calculation of irrigation networks with a very limited number of nodes. In many applications, the convergence criteria used are based on the minimum cost and this does not ensure the uniformity of distribution of water. They use the equation of motion by imposing speed and do not consider the characteristic equation (which shows the characteristics of the used emitter). The criterion of the speed used often is based on the hypothesis not true that the speed remains constant throughout the development of the laterals and in all the pipes of the irrigation system, while in reality it is greatly variable along the direction in which moves the water, from a maximum value of a few meters per second to zero. The results of this approach are then approximated. Ultimately all these instruments involve various problems and limitations:

- The risk of incorrect results;
- Higher costs and waste: we often tend to oversize for safety reasons, parts of a plant and the use of water resources is not efficient;
- Agricultural production limited by the unoptimized irrigation factor;
- Legal arguments, often occurring between the farm where it is installed the irrigation system and the professional or the company that operates the installation.

The software for the design of irrigation systems IrriPro thanks to its "heart of calculation" that makes use of the fundamental equations of hydraulics, is able to analyze the irrigation networks with a new and rigorous method. The formulation of the classical equations of hydraulics used in the algorithm excludes forms of empiricism and simplifying assumptions that depart from the expected final result. The software, in fact uses a calculation algorithm that solves the equations that govern the motion of the currents in pressure (equations of continuity and equation of motion) starting from the boundary hydraulic and geometric conditions, from the plano and altimetric distribution of the irrigation network, as well as hydraulic and geometric characteristics of the pipes and installed emitters.

IrriPro also allows, even in the case of plants for microirrigation, to evaluate the head losses of the continuous type along the pipe, and of the localized type caused by emitters installed along the laterals. Such losses are usually neglected by the designers during the dimensioning phase of the hydraulic installations, even if it is now universally recognized by the scientific community that these may represent a high percentage (between 30% and 50%) of the total head losses and therefore must be taken into account in a correct and rigorous hydraulic calculation, as recognized by the international scientific and technical community. Finally, it is also considered the kinetic load. IrriPro is a design software for irrigation systems capable of calculate all the hydraulic parameters (flow, velocity, pressure, head loss continuous and localized, uniformity of distribution) at any point of the irrigation network, representing the trend of each physical parameter, and design all types of irrigation (sprinkler irrigation networks or microirrigation) of any complexity and size in an easy, powerful and innovative way. The software has a wizard for data entry, simple and intuitive that accompanies effectively the technician through the functionality of the program, from the survey up to the calculation, to the presentation of the results so as to cover all stages of design. The user-friendly environment, which makes it affordable for everyone, allows quick use, with reduced training time, and achievement of accurate results through fast and simple procedures. Through the use of IrriPro the professional has therefore the possibility of:

- realizing an irrigation network on any terrain;
- ensuring the efficiency of the plants;
- making save water and fertilizers;
- improving the quality and quantity of production and therefore profitability of the farm;
- making save approximately 5-10% on the cost of installation of the system.

The designer is supported in the search for changes to be made to improve the design, as it features tools for analysis and diagnostics needed to assess the consequences of each design choice.

]]>The agriculture is the sector which uses the water resources of a country mostly (more than 70% in Italy).

Irrigation is the most important factor in agriculture because it ensures the greatest increase in quantity and quality in production, more of the same treatments adopted for the soil and plants. The design is the key to obtain an efficient irrigation system and maximize the productivity of the harvest.

The micro and sprinkler irrigation are the most spread technics of irrigation. Particularly the microirrigation is able to reach the greatest benefits in terms of efficiency, water saving and agricultural productivity.

But this advanced technique has an Achilles' tendon: it needs careful and rigorous design for irrigation systems. In order to obtain the maximum benefit for irrigation, it’s absolutely necessary that the water reaches the plants uniformly. Today, too often, the irrigation systems have low quality and this brings the following consequences:

- excess of water and fertilizers in some parts and lack in other ones
- various growth conditions of crop, different for size, maturation and quality of fruits (with issues for harvesting)
- under or over sizing of pipes.

Generally the farmer aims to meet plants’ needs, only where few water arrives, but he risks to irrigate too much other parts, waste water which runs over the surface or leach deeply, and consequently damage the cultivation and consume more energy for pumping.IIn an irrigation system that has 70% of efficiency, a third of water isn’t used by roots of plants.

Generally the technicians haven’t the necessary tools to design and analyze the network in a correct and careful way. They rely a lot on drawing softwares which find out the path of the pipes, calculate the amount of pipes and emitters to use and don’t estimate the quality of irrigation. The hydraulic design has to be focused on maximum values of uniformity, the factor that most influences the crop yield response.To properly design a system and achieve the right quality of irrigation, it's necessary to obtain **uniformity of distribution of 90%**. Also, wanting to meet a more restrictive eligibility project, you must contain the change of discharge of all parts of the system in a range of 10% of the nominal discharge.

Even if it uses pressure-compensated emitters the network has to be inside a pressure range in order to allow the correct working. In addition, these emitters have shorter service life than other ones, are more expensive and require more care.

Even if it uses pressure-compensated emitters the network has to be inside a pressure range in order to allow the correct working. In addition, these emitters have shorter service life than other ones, are more expensive and require more care.

When designing an irrigation system many variables come into play such as the size and ground slope to be irrigated, and the characteristics of the emitters used. All of these factors and design criteria have important consequences in the behavior of the system in which the only drawing can not answer. It is therefore necessary to use a tool capable of dealing with the hard task of a real design.

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